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Renewable energy - wind turbines at Scroby Sands, Great Yarmouth

Image: Shutterstock/Becky Stares

If you have ever driven in the countryside in Europe, you have probably seen wind turbines in a line in some open field. While these are great and very helpful for the environment, off-shore wind farms are even more effective. They are less disruptive and are completely out of the way in terms of human activity. Furthermore, they can generate more energy out in the ocean where there are more powerful open winds.

There are clear advantages to off-shore wind and you may want to know more. So, here are the answers to some of the most important questions you may have.

How common are off-shore wind farms?

So far, there are a total of around forty complete farms around the world, spanning across nine different countries. Most of the sites are in Europe but the U.S. is catching up by placing some on the northeast coast around New York and Cape Cod. Because the European ones have been so successful, the United States has turned to it as a way of a renewable and more eco-friendly energy source.

How do they affect the wildlife and creatures living around the wind farm? According to Cape Wind, they reassure readers by saying bird collisions with the wind turbines rarely happen and the birds usually go around them. There also seems to be little evidence that they harm marine animals, as they are careful when constructing turbines. Even after they have been constructed, there are little cases where the fish are impacted by the project. In fact, in northern Europe there has been an increase in wildlife, rather than a decline.

How much energy do they provide?

The amount of energy a farm makes is enough to provide for more than three thousand homes each year. In comparison, this is twice as much as land wind turbines, which will no doubt make a dent in the U.S.’s carbon footprint, which is one of the global highest.

Are there any problems with them?

One of the main issues with wind energy is that it is expensive to construct and requires extensive upkeep. It is necessary for someone to look over the turbines at all times in case there are any failures or problems so they are a high maintenance source of energy and this is more difficult in the water than on land.

They can also make nighttime navigation for boats and ships a little more challenging, especially if they are a new development that is not well marked.

Regardless of these disadvantages, what is gained is more valuable than the risks. Off-shore wind farms could be crucial in leading a greener way of life as they are extremely effective and less disruptive than many other sources of renewable energy.

 

This article originally appeared on OutwardOn.com Everything you need to know about off-shore wind projects.”

Health

Scientists Develop New Type of Cell That Could Revolutionize the Treatment of Heart Disease

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THIS CONTENT WAS REPUBLISHED FROM AN EARLIER DATE.

Heart disease has consistently been one of the biggest killers of both men and women, with hundreds of thousands of families losing loved ones to the condition every year. But now a new study published in the journal Cell Stem Cell has identified a possible breakthrough in the treatment of heart disease, offering hope to anyone suffering from a dodgy ticker. The study was conducted by a team of researchers from the Gladstones Institutes, who have discovered a way to make a remarkable new type of cell that could help damaged hearts repair themselves.

Heart failure occurs when the heart is overworked or the supply of oxygen is too low. A sudden attack can cause the loss of huge amounts of important muscle cells known as cardiomyocytes (CMs). These CMs cannot regenerate by themselves, nor can they be replaced because transplanted heart cells tend not to survive in the patient’s body. As you can imagine, this makes the treatment of heart disease quite tricky; since heart cells can’t regenerate or be replaced, the damage is usually irreversible. “Scientists have tried for decades to treat heart failure by transplanting adult heart cells, but these cells cannot reproduce themselves, and so they do not survive in the damaged heart,” said Yu Zhang, MD, PhD, one of the lead authors of the study.

To overcome this dilemma, the team investigated the possibility of regenerating the heart using progenitors—stem cells that have already been programmed to develop into a specific type of cell. In this case, they targeted cardiovascular progenitor cells (CPCs), which are produced as the heart begins to form within the embryo. Using a revolutionary technique, the team were able to produce CPCs in the lab and halt their development so the cells remained effectively “frozen” until use. They called these lab-grown cells “induced expandable CPCs,” or ieCPCs.

Unlike adult heart cells, ieCPCs have the ability to replicate. If transplanted successfully, they could replace a patient’s damaged heart cells and possibly continue to self-repair. “Our generated ieCPCs can prolifically replicate and reliably mature into the three types of cells in the heart, which makes them a very promising potential treatment for heart failure,” said Zhang. To test this theory, the team injected some of the cells into a mouse that had suffered a heart attack. Remarkably, most of the cells transformed into functioning heart cells, generating new muscle tissue and blood vessels and improving the mouse’s overall heart function.

So what does all this mean for the treatment of heart disease? Well, it’s definitely big news. The cells used to treat the mouse were derived from skin cells, which means a patient’s own cells could potentially be used to treat their heart disease. The next step is to try and form human ieCPCs in the lab, and then follow up with human trials to see if the method is as effective. All going well, this could be a viable treatment for heart disease patients within the next few years.

Q: Is this the most important breakthrough yet in the field of heart disease research? Share your thoughts in the comments below.

Copyright 2016 David Carroll

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Technology and Science

How Li-Fi Technology Is Going to Change the Internet Game Forever

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How Li-Fi Technology Is Going to Change the Internet Game Forever
THIS CONTENT WAS REPUBLISHED FROM AN EARLIER DATE.

Are you sick of slow Internet connections and weak Wi-Fi signals? I know we’re talking First World problems here, but it still gets under my skin. Luckily, all that could be about to change soon, as there’s a new kid on the block. See, our old buddy Wi-Fi looks set to be surpassed by Li-Fi technology—a new method of data transmission that uses visible light communication instead of radio waves.

It’s been around for a while, and we already know the new tech can achieve staggering speeds of up to 224 Gbps in a laboratory setting. But now an Estonian startup called Velmenni has tested Li-Fi in an office environment, and they’ve managed a healthy 1 Gbps (about 100 times faster than current average Wi-Fi speeds). So we’re definitely getting closer to actually implementing Li-Fi technology in the real world, but what exactly is it? Let’s find out:

How Does Li-Fi Technology Work?

The term “Li-Fi” was first coined by its inventor Harald Haas, who unveiled the technology at a TED conference back in 2011. It’s basically a method of transmitting binary data across the visible light spectrum by quickly flicking a bulb on and off, just like Morse code. While that sounds like a recipe for blindness and seizures, the flickering happens so fast that it’s imperceptible to the human eye. It’s not a difficult technology to implement, either—with just a simple modification, virtually any bulb can be converted into a Li-Fi transmitter/receiver, from the lamp on your desk to the overhead light in a car or airplane.

How Is It Going to Change the Way We Connect?

Well, there’s the enormous jump in connection speeds for a start. But aside from that, Li-Fi technology offers a number of tangible benefits. It’s highly efficient, because we already use bulbs everywhere for the purposes of illumination. Piggybacking data over the same waves would reduce our energy costs right off the bat. It’s also highly secure, because light waves can’t penetrate walls. Then you have all the potential applications of the technology. Imagine cars that can transmit data back and forth to prevent accidents, or street lamps that function as free data access points. Pretty cool, no?

When Will We Get to Use It?

Given the successful field test in Estonia, it wouldn’t be unreasonable to expect to see Li-Fi making its way to our homes and workplaces within the next couple of years. But before you get too excited, you should know that Li-Fi technology has its limitations. For example, the fact that light waves can’t pass through walls is great for security, but it’s problematic from a practical standpoint. Also, Li-Fi sort of falls apart once you move outdoors because of pollution and interference from natural light sources.

In all likelihood, it will supplement Wi-Fi technology rather than replace it altogether (at least in the early stages of its rollout), so don’t throw away your existing router just yet. With that said, it’s definitely got some serious potential to revolutionise the Internet. But here’s the million-dollar question: does Li-Fi mean the end of that annoying “buffering” symbol? We’ll just have to wait and see.

Q: Any other tech developments you’re pumped about seeing? Tell us about them in the comments below.

David CarrollDavid Carroll is a freelance writer, self-published author, and chief health-nut at thepaleotoolkit.com. Outside of work, he loves hurling (an amazing Irish sport), playing video games and hanging out with his dogs. Follow him on Twitter (@DavidAshCarroll) and Google+.

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Technology and Science

If climate change is real, then why is Antarctic ice cover growing?

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antarctica global warming climate change

The North Pole has been losing ice cover at an alarming rate in recent years as the Arctic region steadily warms up. For those not in denial about climate change, it’s a constant and potent reminder that something needs to be done, and done quickly. But if the planet really is getting warmer, how is it possible that Antarctic ice cover has not only remained stable, but actually grown in recent years? It’s a question that has proven difficult to answer and provided interesting fodder for the climate change debate, but now a team of researchers from NASA believe they may have put the issue to bed.

In a study published in the journal Remote Sensing of Environment, the authors show that the reason the Antarctic is not melting like the Arctic is due to differences in topography, climate and ocean levels between the two regions. “Our study provides strong evidence that the behavior of Antarctic sea ice is entirely consistent with the geophysical characteristics found in the southern polar region, which differ sharply from those present in the Arctic,” explained lead researcher Son Nghiem.

Every year, Antarctic ice expands and shrinks according to seasonal cycles in the Southern Hemisphere. The NASA team used satellite radar, sea temperature, ocean levels and other data to track this ice formation and identify any contributing factors. They found that as new ice forms in the Antarctic, it is pushed northwards by winds and forms a kind of “protective shield” around the continent. The winds continue to pack ice up against the shield, increasing its thickness up to 1,000 kilometers (620 miles) in parts. As the ice shield continues to drift away from the continent, it leaves behind an area of open water where new ice can form, protected from waves.

All of this occurs in a region where the sea surface temperature remains below freezing at -1 degrees celsius (30F). This “temperature boundary” is dictated by ocean currents which are particular to the surrounding area, and are influenced by sea floor creatures the researchers identified in their study. So far from being a paradox, the behaviour of the surrounding ocean and wind patterns influenced by the topography of the Antarctic create an environment that’s well-suited to the formation and persistence of ice. The same factors are not present in the Arctic, which leaves the region more vulnerable to the effects of global warming.

NASA’s study has given us the most cohesive explanation to date for the disparate behaviour of Arctic and Antarctic ice cover. The growth of sea ice in the southern region might appear to contradict everything we know about global warming, but in fact, it’s simply a product of differences in climate and topography between the two poles. Despite their obvious similarities, the Arctic and Antarctic are quite different. So if you encounter anyone who cites the ice cover paradox as evidence against climate change, point them to this study and explain they’re comparing apples and oranges.

Q: What’s the number one obstacle getting in the way of tackling climate change? Share your thoughts in the comments below.

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